Entrepreneurship

 

Entrepreneurship

Jowie Inc. is one institution that entails providing products and services in the cosmetics industry. Keeping in mind that this is one growing industry, many firms are sprouting up to have a share in the large market of cosmetics products. However, this is no setback to make Jowie Inc. not to make its impact in this competitive market. Nonetheless, various factors will have to be acknowledged prior to launching this firm on a regional basis (Raheem, S. 2013). This discussion aims at analyzing the factors that would influence planning of the establishing of Jowie Inc.

The first factor that would greatly impact on planning the launch of Jowie Inc. would entail the amount of investment and the time it would take to enjoy returns. In essence, the larger the amount of capital invested then it logically follows that it is the higher the returns on investment will be realized but in quite a substantial amount of time which is estimated to be three-four years of existence. This is one factor that would be acknowledged prior to launching Jowie Inc.

Basing an argument on the fact that cosmetics is one growing product market, then it would be vital to understand that the various forms of advertisements that would be incorporated would also be an influencing factor in the planning process. This, in the cosmetics industry, generally describes the level unto which the returns to scale and the actual time that would be incurred in realizing the same. In the planning process therefore, it would be wise to acknowledge this factor comprehensively and allocate adequate resources as this to some extent would threaten the existence of the entity.

 

One major setback that many institutions face, is to determine which costs suit what type of investment (Raheem, S. 2013).This setback has even propelled the affected institutions to seek for services of financial experts in a bid to helping understand when to invest and on what projects. The area that is greatly affected by the type of decision to incorporate is the capital investment and this threatens the financial stability of any profit making institution.

If too much investments in terms of capital is injected on a short-run related activity, then this move could be described to have resulted from uniformed sources impacting negatively on the institution as a whole. This would be due to the sole reason that after the investment not even a single cent can be recovered as it will have already been paid.

In any institution, opportunity cost is one vital area that theseinstitutions ought to come across whether they like it or not. This type of cost is normally incurred when an enterprise is seeking greener pastures. Nonetheless, this type of business activity is one area that breed confusion with an eventuality of coming up with non-optimal decisions made by many businesses.

One popular scenario that describes this kind of non-optimal decision made from an opportunity cost, was a major “advancement” by mobile-service provider. A mobile service provider has decided to extend its services to mobile-banking sector foregoing the other crucial services it ought to be providing such as working on call tariffs. Consequently, the move proved unsuccessful and huge chunks of investments had been lost. The management on its end decided to continue pursuing that directive which in the long run ended up in the institution being terminated.

 

 

 

Reference

Raheem, S. (2013). ENTREPRENUERSHIP EDUCATION. Sustainable Development, 4(2), 9-19.

History Paper

Colonial North America had many understandings of freedom. Inhabitants of North America experienced a diverse mixture of ethnic, political, economic, legal and religious affiliations which favored some inhabitants more than it did others.

Economic definition of freedom

Freedom in the 17th century depended on property ownership, Protestantism and political governments. Women for instance, depended on their connections to men with property, whether as employers, relatives or patrons for their economic freedom. Also, Native Americans who were wealthy enough to own land or slaves found a degree of freedom in avoiding agricultural labor. Owning slaves who were meant to do the farming work brought a clear approach to freedom. This degree of freedom existed in from economical point of view. Men with property enjoyed the most liberty since they were considered powerful and had economic freedom. However, there soon emerged a worry about the possibility of everyone in America becoming a slave or servant to someone else due to the limited economic freedom (Keen & Mackintosh, 2001).

The Native Americans’ belief that there was limited degrees of freedom underlines the reason as to why those who enjoyed economic and political freedoms were reluctant to extend the freedom to others. Aristocrats, who were the land owners were the most benefitting from the slave’s toil. Also part of those who enjoyed the economic freedoms of having slaves were the French fur traders and the Merchants and artisans who lived in cities without feudal obligations. The colonial History of America ties it to promoting slavery through suggesting that it was a fundamental English liberty to hold non-European people as slaves (mostly Africans and North Americans). Some colonists opted to return to England with their slaves expecting English laws to protect their property in people (Chowdhury, Denters, & Waart, 1992).

Given that both Native American and European views on freedom were based on the access to land and its resources, the two could not be completely free in the same territory without occasional clashes. The independence of America resolved such cases and preserved the peace of the land. Initially a degree of freedom was enjoyed by immigrants who were granted rights to use stretches of land and exchange networks until it was discovered that this not only made European colonization possible but also undermined the freedom of Native Americans. Thus, civil freedom protected an individual’s property from encroachment by the government.

Religious definition of freedom

According to Contorno, Heckner, Cox, Hanson, and Sanderson (1975), part of North America’s definitions of freedom was the understanding of freedom as a submission to a moral code. Initiated by the Puritan settlers, this spiritual definition of freedom suggested the adoption of Christianity and reinforced the importance of good morals in a community. The Puritan settlers of colonial Massachusetts believed that freedom could only be achieved by abandoning one’s life of sin and adopting the teachings of Christ. This definition of freedom was compatible with restraints on freedom of movement, speech and general behavior. According to the Puritan leader’s spiritual freedom was a connection between ‘natural freedom’ which suggested freedom from evil and ‘moral freedom’ which suggested freedom to do only that which is good.

Religious freedom meant that Protestants had the right to worship as they chose.

Political definition of freedom

Political freedoms meant that some individuals had the rights to participate in public affairs (entitlement to holding office and to vote). British culture and institutions also brought a degree of freedom in North America. The land in which the British Empire rested had a complicated political and religious set-up. Immigrants from Scotland, France Germany and other places claimed freedom through the British cultures and institutions and when the threat of a new British government presented itself, colonists fought for independence (Contoro et. al., 1975).

Political freedom was later associated with the national parliamentary body and the protestant religion. After the long hard fight for independence, English freedoms had been secured. However, these freedoms were under constant threat due to corruption and greed from those who were in government.

Personal/ Social definition of freedom

For most Africans as was with Native Americans, freedom was considered as being inseparable from one’s family ties. The family ties gave one the rights and protection necessary in order for them to live in freedom. Being away from family or being taken away by enemies gave an individual a sense of danger even though some captives were treated as equals by their captors. Most captives were nonetheless taken as slaves and had very little influence over their future due to prolonged slavery. The time in slavery was a limitation to freedom considering the hours of work and the separation from their home communities. Unlike Africans, some Native Americans found a degree of freedom in moving away from their communal lands.

Personal freedom meant an individual had freedom of speech, movement and a free conscience to do whatever they pleased as long as it was right legally and socially.

 

 

 

References

Chowdhury, S. R., Denters, E. M., & Waart, P. J. (1992). The Right to development in international law. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Contorno, N., Heckner, P., Heckner, W., Cox, N., Hanson, R., Sanderson, J. (1975).The People’s Laws. Milwaukee, WI: Heritage Military Music Foundation.

Keen, P. G., & Mackintosh, R. (2001). The freedom economy: Gaining the M-commerce edge in the era of the wireless Internet. Berkeley, Calif.: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.

Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Knopf.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determining the Statistical Significance

1426584307

 

 

Abstract

This paper will discuss the statistical analysis of tobacco use as well as self-rated health for 70 students evenly divided between male and female. The hypothesis test used for the tobacco analysis is a chi square test using two rows (male and female) and three columns (never use, sometimes use, and use often). The hypothesis test used for the self-rated health is a t-test comparison of means. Both of these tests are conducted using a percentile value of 0.05.

The chi square test associated with tobacco use resulted in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. This means that the probability of having the observed results due to random chance was greater than 0.05. The t-test for comparison of means associated with the self-rated health resulted in a rejection of the null hypothesis. This means that the probability of having the observed results due to random chance was less than 0.05. In both tests the calculations were carried out in an Excel file and will be presented in summary here.

The interpretation of the hypothesis test for tobacco use is that the observed data does not provide enough evidence that tobacco use is different between males and females at the 95% level of significance. On the other hand, the interpretation of the hypothesis test for self-rated health does suggest that males and females perceive their own health differently at the 95% level of significance. Relevant calculations will be provided in the appendix at the end of the report.

 

 

Determining the Statistical Significance for Tobacco Use

by Sex and Self-rated Health by Sex

 

This report presents the methodology and results for two different hypothesis tests performed on the same group of 70 students, 35 of whom were male and 35 of whom were female. The first test was concerned with determining whether or not tobacco use is different between male and female students. This was done using a chi square test that allowed for three possible responses for the frequency of the students’ tobacco use. The second test was concerned with determining whether or not there was a difference in how male and female students evaluated their own personal health. This was done using a t-test for comparison of means where the self-rating was on a scale from 0 to 10. The data for these tests came from surveys that were completed by the students. The results from the surveys were entered into an Excel file and then multiple filters were used to determine the information necessary for these determinations.

The first step for evaluating tobacco use was to set up the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. As is typical with chi square contingency tables, the hypotheses associated with this particular test are

H0:      Tobacco use is independent of sex
HA:     Tobacco use is associated with sex.

Remember that this is a two tail test because we are only concerned with whether or not the two sexes use tobacco in different amounts, not which sex uses more or less tobacco.

The next step was to set up the contingency table. This was accomplished with the help of Excel and some filters that made counting simple and accurate. The completed contingency table is shown at the top of the following page.

Never Sometimes Often Total
Male 12 11 12 35
Female 17 14 4 35
Total 29 25 16 70

Notice that there were 35 male and 35 female respondents. Also notice that the bottom row and far right column both add to 70: the total number of student respondents.

Never Sometimes Often
Male 14.50 12.50 8.00
Female 14.50 12.50 8.00

Next the expected values for each possibility (six in total) were calculated. The resulting table is:

It is readily seen that the expected values are not equivalent to the observed values. The question that our hypothesis test will answer is whether or not that difference is significant at the five percent level.

The result of the test was a chi square value of 5.22. The degrees of freedom for this test was found by multiplying one less than the number of rows by one less than the number of columns. In other words this test has (2 – 1) * (3 – 1) = 2 degrees of freedom. The critical value for a chi square test with 2 degrees of freedom at the 0.05 level of significance is 5.99. Since our test statistic is lower than the critical value, corresponding to a p-value of 0.0745, we are unable to reject the null hypothesis.

A fairly similar order of steps, albeit a different technique, was used to analyze the individual health self-rating. As with the hypothesis test for tobacco use, the first step is to determine the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. For the t-test comparison of means these hypotheses are:

H0:      The means are the same for males and females
HA:     The means are not the same for males and females

This is also a two tail test because we only want to know if there is a difference in the means, not which sex has a higher or lower self-rating.

The next step was to find both the mean and the standard deviation of the self-rating for males and for females. This is where the Excel file was most helpful, since it was able to count the value for each possible rating and calculate the needed values easily. For males we found that the average rating was 6.429 with a standard deviation of 1.899. For females we found that the average rating was 5.400 with a standard deviation of 1.866. Again the question of importance is whether or not this difference is significant at the five percent level.

In order to conduct the t-test for comparison of means, we needed to have the difference between the means, an estimate of variance for all 70 respondents, and an estimated standard error. Determining these led to a test statistic of 2.286. Since our hypothesis test had 68 degrees of freedom our critical value was 1.996. Here our test statistic is greater than the critical value, corresponding to a p-value of 0.0245; we conclude that the null hypothesis should be rejected.

This test lends itself to a graphical presentation fairly readily. Excel was again used, this time to produce frequency plots in the form of column tables for both males and females. The column table for males is

while the column table for females appears here:

Visually it appears that there are significantly lower ratings on average for females, which was confirmed at the 95 percent level by our hypothesis test. The distribution for males appears to be fairly normal, while the distribution for females seems to deviate from a normal distribution somewhat.

Both of these tests were conducted using data obtained from the same 70 student respondents. It is possible for these tests to be inconclusive, at least temporarily. In other words, if the critical value is 2.50 and the test statistic is 2.49, it can be difficult to say with certainty that the null hypothesis is unable to be rejected. When this happens, the best way to increase confidence in the results of the hypothesis test is to increase the sample size. For the hypothesis test regarding tobacco use this is not an issue. For the hypothesis test regarding self-rating of health the difference is smaller but not too small. One possible place where further testing might be useful is the female results for self-rating since the data here does not appear to be as normally distributed as that for the males.

 

 

Appendix for Tobacco

Never Sometimes Often Total
Male 12 11 12 35
Female 17 14 4 35
Total 29 25 16 70

Starting with the contingency table

the expected values were found using

(35 * 29) / 70 = 14.50                         Never use tobacco
(35 * 25) / 70 = 12.50                         Sometimes use tobacco
(35 * 16) / 70 = 8.00                           Often use tobacco.

The chi square statistic was found from
(12-14.5)2/14.5 + (17-14.5)2/14.5 + (11-12.5)2/12.5 + (14-12.5)2/12.5 +
(12 -8)2/8 + (4-8)2/8 = 5.2221

There are (3-1)*(2-1) = 2 degrees of freedom.

 

 

Appendix for self-rating

First find the mean rating for males

mean = [(2)(2) + (1)(3) + (5)(5) + (12)(6) + (7)(7) + (2)(8) + (4)(9) + (2)(10)] / 35
= 6.429,

and the men rating for females

mean = [(1)(2) + (6)(3) + (5)(4) + (5)(5) + (9)(6) + (5)(7) + (1)(8) + (3)(9)] / 35
= 5.400.

Next the Excel routine STDEV.S was used to find the standard deviations

SD for males = 1.899
SD for females = 1.866.

The difference in means is 6.429 – 5.400 = 1.029. The estimate of variance is

(1/2) * (1.8992 + 1.8662) = 3.544.

The estimated standard error is then

square root (2 * 3.544 / 35) = 0.450

Our test statistic is then t = 1.029 / 0.450 = 2.286.

Since there are (35 – 1) + (35 – 1) = 68 degrees of freedom, the critical value is 1.99.

Statistics Homework Help

Reflection Paper

 

Reflection Paper

The research in “College Faculty Use and Perceptions of Electronic Mail to Communicate with Students” was interesting because it gave information on a different perspective of student-faculty email communication than what had been currently published.  Prior to this research, the literature on this subject was mostly conducted from the students’ point of view and therefore we only had half the puzzle.  The main research questions in this article centered around gathering information about how often the email communication took place, how often faculty is the one to initiate the contact with individual students, the motives on the part of the faculty member for initiating contact and his/her belief about student initiation of email contact, and lastly how faculty feels about this particular form of communication.  The researchers came to understand an important point about the faculty-student relationship.  It is interesting to note that “how faculty perceive students’ choice of email as a means of communication can influence their view of the students and their responses to the communication” (Duran, Kelly, & Keaten, 2005, 162).  I think this is very interesting because I personally never considered how a professor of mine might view me as a person and as a student from the choice to email instead of speak face-to-face and I never considered how I might better phrase my email communications with my professor.  This research pointed out to me that my choice in communication with my professor might unintentionally color his/her opinion of me.  From now on, I will consider this before emailing.

This last research question about how the faculty feels about electronic communication relates most to my own research because I am trying to discover whether electronic communication like email and texts is beneficial or detrimental to a romantic relationship.  I will ask questions about the length of the romantic relationship, the choice of electronic communication versus in person interaction, how the participants feel about electronic communication with their romantic partner, specifically whether they feel like it allows the emotional connection with their partner that face-to-face interaction would.  I hope to determine if romantic relationships in the digital age are more or less successful than when the only choice of communication was in person or on the telephone.

My survey is a five question survey so far with four choices for each question.  In the survey on faculty-student email use, it was a much longer survey and I felt like it did a good job of getting the faculty participants to answer the important questions that would lead to answers for the researchers.  There was four sections in the survey, each dealing with a different research question.  Each section, had several questions.  Some of the sections offered five choices, from strongly agree down the spectrum to strongly disagree.  There were also open-ended questions in the survey, which helped the researchers because the faculty who participated could fill in their own responses.  This seemed like it was especially helpful for the researchers in determining the question of how the professor felt about the students’ choice to email instead of discuss an issue face-to-face.  I feel like this is a good option for my survey, to offer open-ended questions, because I might obtain more interesting and informative results about how my participants feel about electronic communication with their romantic partner.

In the survey for the faculty, the survey questions were sent through the mail and answered anonymously by 259 faculty participants at two different universities (Duran, et al., 2005, 163).  I think it would benefit my research if my survey was anonymous as well, especially because people do not always feel comfortable talking about their private relationships.  My survey questions are descriptive because I am trying to get my participants to describe how they feel about electronic communication with their significant other.  This is very similar to the research in the student-faculty article.  I created each question to get at the heart of my research about electronic communication with romantic partners and if and how it affects the emotional bond between these partners.  That is why I first wanted to find out the length of the relationship.  This would help figure out if the success of the relationship (judged by length) was at all related to frequent or infrequent use of electronic communication with one another, which is the next question.  With the first two questions, we can immediately find out if there is a correlation between length of relationship and use of mobile communication.  The next three questions are all descriptive questions to figure out if the participants feel like their relationships is helped or harmed by use of electronic communication with one another.  Like the researchers in the student-faculty email communication research, I hope to discover the degree, if any, electronic communication helps or harms a relationship.

 

 

Reference

Duran, R. L., Kelly, L. & Keaten, J. A. (2005). College Faculty Use and Perceptions of

Electronic Mail to Communicate with Students. Communication Quarterly, 53(2), 159-176.

Developmental Disorders

 

Introduction

Last week, I paid a visit to Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI) to find out more about developmental disorders. This institute has a number of medical and educational services aimed at improving the lives of persons with disorders of the spinal cord, brain and muscoskeletal system. It has a special unit dedicated to developmental disorders. I interviewed three members of this unit on various issues related to children with developmental disorders. In this summation paper, I report my findings from the interview.

Interview Summation

My first stop during the interview was at Michael Cataldo’s office. Cataldo is the director of Behavioral Psychology at the institute. The first thing I noticed about Cataldo is that he is a very jovial man who loves what he does professionally. Thus, I knew right away that I was going to enjoy talking to him. However, due to his professional commitments, I acknowledged that we had to go straight into business of the day. My first question to Cataldo was about the state of developmental disorders in children at school and at home. In a pensive mood, Cataldo tells me that there are many children suffering from a myriad of developmental disorders throughout the world. For example, he tells me that about 1 in 70 children is autistic. While this statistic is a worry, Cataldo tells me that the percentage of children having such disorders has been increasing over the years. Indeed, my research showed that the current incidence rate for autism is a 30 percent increase from what was recorded 2012 (Falco, 2014).

Afterwards, I ask Cataldo about some of the challenges that these children experience while in school. He tells me that most of them, especially those with attention deficit and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, have massive problems when it comes to concentrating in class. Consequently, it makes it very hard for them to learn like normal children. For such students, this can be very frustrating such that it may lower their self esteem. “I have always recommended that all parents having children with developmental disorders to take them to specialist schools so that their unique needs can be addressed”, he tells me.

For a person who has been in the medical field for decades, Cataldo finds it frustrating that knowledge of developmental disorders is limited. He says that even though behavioral and developmental disorders have become widespread worldwide, they are still understood very poorly by most people in the society. The lack of comprehension is compounded further by the stigma that frequently accompanies a diagnosis of a developmental disorder. Stigmatization has meant that many parents are scared of bearing children with developmental challenges. However, this should not be the case. “With proper understanding of these disorders, parents, physicians and the public can gain the expertise on how to manage children with developmental disorders and ensure that they lead normal lives just like other healthy children,” he concludes.

I was moved by Michael Cataldo’s words. Personally, I have never interacted with a child with developmental challenges. My knowledge about these disorders was also limited. As a result, I felt enlightened by Michael Cataldo. I thanked him for sparing his time to talk to me. He was also touched by my keenness to learn about the plight of challenged children. After saying our goodbyes, I went to interview Louis Hagopian who is the program director of the neurobehavioral unit. After introducing myself, I immediately got into the interview. My first question was “What experience have you had with children with developmental disorders?”This was his reply.

“I have talked to parents and observed children with these challenges, and also seen them at school. Their behavior can be extremely frustrating and tricky to deal with, and most parents are at a loss to find useful treatment. Some may find relief, albeit in the short term, with stimulant medication. In many children, this can lead to adverse side effects. Moreover, it does not offer a long-term solution. There is indication from a research study that children who had been treated with Ritalin have, in their pre-teenage years, greater risk of stunted growth as well as juvenile delinquency. As these children grow older, it can be problematic to find and maintain a job. Some of them resort to substance abuse as a way of self-medication”

Hagopian’s response was a demonstration of his extensive expertise in the field. After the interview, I researched on some of the things that he had told me. I found out that Ritalin is a drug that is a stimulant of the central nervous system, which affects chemicals in the nerves and brains that contribute to impulse control and hyperactivity. It is mostly used for children with hyperactivity and attention challenges (Breggin, 2009). Prior to my interview, I was aware of the importance of early intervention. Therefore, I asked Hagopian about ways through which parents can recognize symptoms of developmental disorders at the earliest opportunity.

Hagopian says that there are milestones in children development that parents can monitor to determine if they are growing normally. These milestones include sitting, standing, mimicking of movements, uttering of incomprehensible words, smiling and recognition of familiar faces. He says that when these milestones that are not achieved in time, a red flag might be raised. “If parents are concerned about their child’s growth, they should actively voice these worries to their pediatrician and not consider them as alarmist. It is particularly important that a standard screening tool be administered at any time when parents convey concerns about their child’s social, play and communicative behaviors,” he adds. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, all children should be screened at the ages of 9, 18, 24 and 30 months (Collins-Bride & Saxe, 2013). Hagopian supports this assertion and encourages all parents to follow go for these screenings even if their children appear to be growing normally. “Once the screening shows that a child is experiencing growth delays, he/she should be taken to an early intervention (EI) program. In the event of a diagnosis, this child will be served with a developmental pediatrician, child psychologist, pediatric neurologist, special educator, speech/language pathologist, audiologist, and occupational therapist. This will give him/her the best chances of leading a better life.”

Presently, there are a number of medications aimed at treating disruptive symptoms of developmental disorders such as autism, cerebral palsy and ADHD. These include antipsychotic medications such as Risperidone (Risperdal), Clozapine (Clozaril), and Quetiapine (Seroquel), antidepressants (fluxetone and sertraline) and stimulants (methylphenidate). Apart from these medications, I was interested in behavioral therapies for developmental disorders. To obtain this information, I interviewed Nancy Grace who is a director at the pediatric developmental disabilities clinic at the Krieger Institute. She tells me that there a number of applied behavior analysis (ABA) interventions that can be used. However, the two common interventions are Pivotal Response Training and Verbal Behavior. The former aims at identifying essential skills that will influence a patient’s behavioral responses. In many cases, this involves family education to enable the child live comfortably in inclusive settings. Verbal Behavior incorporates strategies such as prompting and errorless teaching to guide challenged children on how to acquire basic verbal behaviors and some essential communication skills.

Grace tells me that the social skills of a challenged child can be improved through therapy. “For example, the TEACCH [which stands for Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children] can help a child to adapt to his/her physical environment. This approach uses visual cues and familiarity so that a child can develop a particular habit once he/she sees a signal.”Another intervention is called interpersonal synchrony, which targets imitation and social development skills. This essentially teaches children to become engaged with others.

Conclusion

I felt very enlightened once I was through with my interviews. I was grateful to the three experts for giving me an opportunity to share a platform and share their sentiments with me. I felt very motivated to know more about children with developmental disorders. Therefore, my plan in the near future is to visit a specialist school and interview teachers on how they manage these children.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Breggin, P. (2009). The Ritalin Fact Book: What Your Doctor Won’t Tell You About ADHD and Stimulant Drugs. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

Collins-Bride, G. M., & Saxe, J. A. M. (2013). Clinical guidelines for advanced practice nursing: An interdisciplinary approach. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Falco, M. (2014, March 28). “Autism rates now 1 in 68 U.S. children: CDC.” CNN International. Retrieved 4 October 2014 from http://edition.cnn.com/2014/03/27/health/cdc-autism/